meet Ophthalmology Specialist, Dr. Grozdanic
Veterinary ophthalmologist, Dr. Sinisa Grozdanic, is accepting appointments on a quarterly basis at Red River Animal Emergency Hospital and Referral Center. He primarily works at Animal Eye Consultants of Iowa, where you may contact him with any questions you may have concerning your pet’s eye health. Additionally, we invite you to schedule an appointment with Dr. Grozdanic at our Fargo-Moorhead area clinic today.
Dr. Grozdanic performs eyelid and corneal surgeries, as well as cataract, glaucoma, and vitreo-retinal procedures at Red River Animal Emergency Hospital and Referral Center. He specializes in the early diagnostics of glaucoma and retinal diseases, advanced surgical procedures for glaucoma, endoscopic ocular and orbital surgeries, laser therapy for various eye diseases, unique treatments for autoimmune retinal diseases, and stem-cell based therapies for blinding ocular diseases.
Get to Know Dr. Grozdanic
In 1998, Dr. Grozdanic earned his veterinary degree from the University of Belgrade, Serbia. He went on to earn a PhD in neuroscience in 2002 and in 2007, completed his clinical veterinary ophthalmology residency at Iowa State University. From 2007-2011, Dr. Grozdanic served as an assistant professor and staff ophthalmologist with the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences at ISU.
Dedicated to the advancement of his profession, Dr. Grozdanic’s achievements include:
- Publication of 27 manuscripts and a book chapter concerning glaucoma, neuroprotection, autoimmune retinal disease, ocular imaging, and stem cell therapy for blinding ocular diseases.
- Worldwide presentations on advanced diagnostic and treatment modalities for certain eye diseases.
- North America’s first veterinary ophthalmologist to perform artificial corneal transplants in a veterinary patient.
- Developed numerous novel diagnostic and treatment protocols for various canine, feline, and equine ocular diseases.
- US Department of Defense and Secret Service consultant on canine units
- Worldwide pro bono consultations to more than 80 veterinary ophthalmologists on over 300 complex veterinary ophthalmology clinical cases.
Call his Iowa office at 319-826-6217 or go online to schedule.
Visit animal-eye-iowa.com for more information
General examination – Every pet receives a detailed evaluation of the visual system function, and examination of the front and back part of the eye, eyelids and orbit during each eye examination. Eyelids and the front part of the eye (cornea, anterior chamber, lens) are evaluated with a very specialized microscope (slit lamp biomicroscope), while the back part of the eye (vitreous, retina, optic nerve) is evaluated with the special optical instrument called indirect ophthalmoscope.
Tonometry – Tonometry is a diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of intraocular pressure. We use special electronic instrument equipped with the pressure sensor, which very precisely evaluates intraocular pressure in many species: dogs, cats, rabbits, birds, hamsters, pet mice and rats. Elevated intraocular pressure can cause rapid damage to the back part of eye and result in the complete blindness within 12 hours. Early detection of the elevated intraocular pressure is an essential step for prevention of blindness in many pets. Tonometry is performed with the application of numbing drops (topical anesthetic), so eye discomfort is minimally present during this examination procedure.
Tear production testing – We routinely perform tear production testing to evaluate your pet eyes for a possible presence of the “dry eye disease”. Dry eye disease is a frequent cause of ocular discomfort, irritation and may ultimately result in the serious injury to the eye and blindness.
Special stains (fluorescein stain, rose Bengal stain, lysamine green stain) – Special staining procedures are used to detect corneal ulcers and different eye abnormalities, which can result in the damage to the front part of the eye and decreased vision.
Nasolacrimal duct evaluation – Nasolacrimal duct is a tube, which drains tears from the eye to the nose or mouth. Sometimes this duct can be clogged or damaged, which may result in the excessive tearing or discharge from the eye. We use a special probe to inspect whether duct allows normal flow of the tears.
Chromatic pupil light reflex (cPLR) testing– cPLR testing is a special diagnostic procedure, which was initially developed by Dr Grozdanic and his research team at the Iowa State University in 2006. Since that time this technology became a popular veterinary ophthalmology tool for the evaluation of the eye function in six different continents. This particular technique allows for the early detection of the retina and optic nerve abnormalities, even before any vision problems occur.
Electroretinography (ERG) – Electroretinography is a special diagnostic routine in which an ophthalmologist is recording electrical activity coming from the back part of the eye in your pet. This particular technique is particularly useful for an early detection of photoreceptor/retina diseases. Photoreceptors are cells, which are converting the light signal in the electrical signal information, which is than transmitted from the eye to the brain. The ERG evaluation is performed with the use of topical numbing drops after patients have been dark adapted for 20 minutes. In pets which have the high level of anxiety, a mild sedation may have to be used to complete this examination.
Ocular ultrasound – The ultrasound examination of the eye and orbit is pursued in pets where direct observation of intraocular structures is not possible, or there is a suspicion that the problem may be located behind the eye (in the orbit). We also perform a special form of ultrasonography – high frequency ultrasonography with a goal of detecting early abnormalities in the front part of the eye, which can result in the abnormal flow of the eye fluid (aqueous humor) from the eye. The abnormalities in the eye fluid outflow may result in the increased intraocular pressure, which may cause blindness in the less than 12 hours. The ocular ultrasound evaluation is performed with the use of topical numbing drops after patients, however in pets which have the high level of anxiety, a mild sedation may have to be used to complete this examination.
Eyelid surgeries – Eyelid abnormalities are frequently responsible for the ocular discomfort, pain and damage to the transparent part of the eye (cornea).
The most frequent eyelid abnormalities are:
- – entropion (inward rolling of eyelids resulting in the hair rubbing to the surface of the eye)
- – ectropion (outward rolling of eyelids, resulting in the excessive exposure and drying)
- – distichiasis (growth of hairs from the eyelid margin resulting in the ocular irritation and sometimes corneal ulcers)
- – ectopic cilia (growth of the hair from the conjunctival surface close to the eye resulting in ocular irritation)
- – trichiasis (excesive folds of skin or hair around the nose resulting in the eye rubbing and irritation)
- – heavy eyelid folds (heavy eyelid folds are frequently present in Shar Pei, Chow Chow and Hound breeds)
- – lagophthalmus – large eyelid openings resulting in the incomplete eyelid closure, especially during the sleep may be present in many breeds of dogs with short faces (brachyocephalic breeds) resulting in the excessive corneal drying, corneal scarring and pigmentation, and ultimately predisposition for developing corneal ulcers,
- – eyelid tumors – benign and malignant eyelid tumors can develop on eyelids, resulting in the irritation, pain and discomfort.
Our team performs numerous surgical procedures, which can effectively restore the normal eyelid function and structure, regardless of the problem complexity.
Third eyelid surgeries – Prolapsed gland of the third eyelid (“cherry eye”) is a problem sporadically encountered in predominantly young dogs. Repositioning of the prolapsed third eyelid gland is a must in order to secure normal tear production and eliminate any ocular irritation associated with this condition. Sometimes, gland can re-prolapse even after several surgeries. However, we use a more complex and effective surgical procedure, which do not result in the recurrence of the condition, and eliminate the need for additional surgeries. Third eyelid can also be injured as a result of the traumatic event or tumor growth, and we perform different surgical procedures for the repair of the third eyelid and tumor removal.
Nasolacrimal duct surgeries – We routinely perform surgeries for the reconstruction of the nasolacrimal duct after traumatic or inflammatory events. We also perform widening of nasolacrimal duct openings in cases where these openings are small or completely absent, which allows for the normal flow of tears from the eye surface to the nose and mouth.
Corneal surgeries – Corneal injuries and degenerative conditions (corneal epithelial and endothelial degeneration, corneal sequestrum) are frequent causes of decreased vision, ocular discomfort and blindness in our pets. We perform different types of corneal surgeries (conjunctival pedicle graft, free island graft, corneo-scleral transposition, superficial keratectomy, corneal transplants, artificial corneal transplants, corneal freezing surgeries for tumor and pigment destruction), with a goal of eliminating ocular discomfort and preserving vision. Since corneal tissue is less than 0.5 mm thick, all surgeries are done with specialized instruments and with the help of the high-power operating microscope. Many corneal surgeries are extremely delicate procedures and are usually performed only by highly trained specialists. In our facilities, we do perform all routine and more complex corneal surgeries. We are one of the rare worldwide institutions equipped and trained to perform artificial corneal transplants in pets. The artificial corneal transplant is usually scheduled 2-3 months in advance, so all needed preparations can be done to secure the best possible outcome of the surgery.
Glaucoma surgeries – Glaucoma is a disease characterized by elevation of the pressure inside the eye. In our facilities, we perform different glaucoma surgeries (regular subconjunctival shunt placement, frontal sinus shunt placement, diode laser treatment of ciliary body). Glaucoma is a very difficult disease to treat. However, our extensive experience with this disease allowed us to significantly improve diagnostic modalities, and medical and surgical treatment outcomes. We are on of rare national facilities, which is performing preoperative glaucoma screening using high frequency ultrasound and chromatic pupil light reflex testing, which allows for more precise timing of different surgical procedures and better long term outcomes.
The luxated lens is an emergency condition, which can result in the secondary glaucoma and blindness within 12-24 hours. It is frequently encountered in terrier breeds. We perform routine and emergency lens removals in cases of lens luxation. Cataracts are among the most frequent causes of blindness among pets. Non operated cataracts may lead to numerous complications (uncontrolled intraocular inflammation, lens luxation, retinal detachment, glaucoma) resulting in ocular pain, discomfort and blindness. Cataract surgeries are performed in the similar manner as done in human patients (phacoemulsification). A small probe is introduced in the eye, which has a pulsating ultrasonic tip – this tip moves inside the eye with the very high speed and energy, resulting in the cataract destruction. Once when the cataract is destroyed and removed, the artificial (plastic) lens is usually placed in the eye. Cataracts do not grow back, however some opacities may develop around the artificial lens. These opacities rarely have a significant impact on the vision after cataract surgery. Emergency cataract surgeries are most frequently performed in patients with traumatic injury to the lens and in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients may develop the acute swelling of the cataract resulting in the secondary glaucoma and uncontrolled inflammation. In these cases, cataract surgeries must be done immediately to prevent the loss of vision or even worse – the loss of the eye.
Retinal surgeries – Retinal detachment scan be devastating complications associated with different hereditary and acquired conditions. Some breeds of dogs can be predisposed to retinal detachments, and preventative laser or cryo (freezing) surgeries can be performed to prevent retinal detachments from developing. We do perform a full range of transpupillary and transscleral laser retinal procedures, trans-scleral cryoprocedures, and intraoperative vitrectomy with a goal of preventing retinal detachments.
Orbital surgeries – We routinely perform orbital surgeries for damaged eye globes: enucleations (removal of the eye globe with prosthesis placement) and eviscerations (intraocular prosthesis placement with the preservation of the eye globe). We also perform orbital exploratory surgeries with a goal of removing tumors and foreign bodies.